Climate Change- how Atlantic Ocean current system is responsible: What you need to know
Changing natural conditions have worried humans. According to the United Nations, human activities are responsible for changing the weather. According to a study, incidents like severe heat, drought and floods have become more prominent in the last decade. The report is a "red code" for humanity.
According to scientists, quick action by all can still stop the changing climate. A recent study explained that the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is losing its stability. An AMOC stoppage would cool the northern hemisphere and decrease rainfall over Europe.
AMOC carries warm surface waters from the tropics towards the northern hemisphere where it cools and sinks. It then returns to the tropics and then to the South Atlantic as a bottom current. From there it is distributed to all ocean basins via the Antarctic circumpolar current. Without proper AMOC Europe will be very cold. It can also affect El-Niño.
Global warming is a major cause for weakening of this AMOC system.
As the Ice areas are melting quickly and the fresh water from melting ice reduces salinity and density of water which makes water unable to sink , so weakens the AMOC flow.
Indian Ocean is also helping in slow down of AMOC as it warms faster and faster, generated more precipitation, leading to higher salinity in water of tropical portion of Atlantic. This saltier water as it comes through AMOC will get cool quicker and sink faster. This would act as a jump start for AMOC, intensifying the circulation.
According to latest models, if global warming continues, the gulf stream system will weaken by 35-40% by 2100, which could bring a dangerous situation. So there is an urgent need of all governments, leaders, researchers , scientist to work on it fast.